Contributions to the Bulgarian Archeology / Приноси към българската археология <p>Within the series “Contributions to Bulgarian Archaeology. December Days of the Bulgarian Medieval Archeology "Prof. Stancho Vaklinov" are published mainly reports, presented at the scientific conferences "December Days of Bulgarian Medieval Archeology". Each volume is dedicated to a prominent Bulgarian archaeologist who had worked in the field of mediaeval archeology.</p> <p>В поредицата "Приноси към българската археология. Декемврийски дни на българската средновековна археология "проф. д.и.н. Станчо Ваклинов” се публикуват предимно доклади, изнесени на научните конференции „Декемврийски дни на българската средновековна археология“. Всеки том е посветен на виден български археолог, който е работил в областта на средновековната археология.</p> en-US (Valeri Grigorov) (Metodi Zlatkov) Mon, 14 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 За укрепителната система на средновековна Варна <p>In this article the author reviews the data about a section of the medieval fortress wall excavated in 2005 in the oldest and highest part of the Ancient Odessos. Based on the published geodetic plan, as well as on unpublished photographs made after the wall was exposed and during its partial dismantlement, he makes new observations and conclusions regarding its structure and relation to previous and contemporary constructions such as street pavements, channels, water pipes, etc. A conclusion is made that several entrances existed consecutively along the 25 m stretch of the uncovered wall. The entrances, as well as several of the pavements and the channels passing through them or located nearby, are situated along a Late Antique cardo and are part of a street that served as a link to large and durable ancient constructions and to the Large Roman Baths. Outside of the limits of the medieval city, the street passed through abandoned neighbourhoods and headed to an Old-Christian urban basilica and from there further north and north-west.</p> <p>The structure of the wall and particularly the lack of towers at the entrances shows that it was not part of a separate fortress, as currently presumed, but a relatively low (up to 4 m high) barrier. Most probably the wall followed the highest possible points of the terrain and her both ends headed towards the ancient fortification located nearby. Judging by earlier and contemporary evidence, at the seaside the ancient fortress wall existed until the 15<sup>th</sup> – 16<sup>th</sup> c.</p> <p>Taking into account three main factors – the relief of the terrain, the presence of well preserved Late Antique buildings, and the nearby key points of the Romano-Byzantine fortification, the author presumes that the medieval fortress occupied the entire cape part of Odessos and enclosed an area of 10 ha. With the construction of a new defensive line from north and north-west only, the fortified area of Varna comprised no more than one third of the total fortified area of Odessos. From this point of view this can be considered as a consequence of the reduction of the size of the ancient cities, a practice adopted in Byzantium in the 5<sup>th</sup> – 6th c., but also applied in the later centuries. It has to be noted that Varna’s transformation from an ancient to a medieval fortress happened relatively late. If we assume that the fortress wall was constructed in the first two decades of the 11<sup>th</sup> c., as stated by V. Pletniov, this transformation should have resulted from an imperial initiative for restoration of the city and integration of its citizens after the decline of the First Bulgarian Kingdom.</p> <p>Integrating his own conclusions among the data about the defensive system of Varna collected so far, the author points out that the fortress under consideration is a “hybrid“ between the Early and Middle Byzantine defensive system of the city and represents only its outer belt. The inner fortress, as mainly established by Al. Kuzev, was the fortress “Kale ichi” (literally from Turkish – <em>Inner fortress), </em>which existed until 1830. After commenting upon well-known Byzantine literary sources, the author concludes that the fortress (or a part of it) was used as a citadel at least since the late 12<sup>th</sup> c. and not after the mid – 13<sup>th</sup> c. It is possible that some early construction phases were contemporary to the construction of the outer defensive ring, or were immediately subsequent.</p> <p>In this regard, the author reminds about the rejected hypothesis of the Shkorpil brothers, that the Roman Baths or parts of them, located at the highest point of Odessos, could have been used as an “acropolis” and as an “inner fortification” since the Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.</p> Pavel Georgiev ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 14 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Бележки за една група късноантични калъпи за производство на оловни изделия с недобре определено предназначение <p>In the article an attempt is made at determining the date and the nature of a group of numerous but insufficiently known objects – bronze moulds for casting lead spherical objects with diameters most often from 13 to 15 mm. For this purpose, reviewed are a dozen published similar moulds, which their researchers defined as belonging to the Roman period, to the Middle Ages and to the Ottoman period. Attention is<br>also paid to the vague purpose of the objects, which, according to the individual researchers, were intended for lead buttons, bullets, sling-bullets or for some other vague but military purposes. Based on the data collected about these specific objects and their production, a conclusion is made that they should in general be attributed to the Late Antiquity in the relatively broad boundaries of the 3<sup>rd</sup>-4<sup>th</sup> centuries and the purpose of their production – spherical shapes weighing around 15-20 grams, could be defined with a great deal of conditionality as sling-bullets. Therefore, it is suggested that, until reliable data is available to confirm this, these objects should be considered „molds for casting lead spherical shapes dating from Late Antiquity“.</p> Nikolay Markov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 14 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Этнос в чужом окружении. Славяне на территории хазарского каганата <p>In 1968 the Author of this paper made short lasted excavations at the Slavic settlement near the present-day village Bogoyavlenskoe, Lower Don area. The settlement was destroying by a contemporary construction and that explains a short excavation period. The results were summarized and published in a brief article with some errors (Flyorov, 1971).</p> <p>Now, the artifact from Bogoyavlenskoe settlement and other settlements among Lower Don area are precisely used (fig. 1: <em>1</em>). The house type construction is their common characteristic – semi-pit dwellings with stone ovens and pottery with Slavic features. The chronological frame of the settlement is 9<sup>th</sup> century. To Author’s opinion speaking about the problem and reasons for the Slavs penetration in the Khazarian khaganate is premature.</p> Valeriy S. Flerov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 14 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Термомагнитно изследване на средновековна битова керамика от Плиска <p>The scope of the present paper is to define the firing temperature of the medieval household pottery from Pliska, using magnetic susceptibility measurements. Throwing light upon this topic is of a great importance for the study of the ancient pottery technology. The thermomagnetic method used for the study is based on the magneto-mineralogical changes during heating pottery. Different studies demonstrate that this method is more successful and more reliable than other archaeometric methods (XRD, SEM, DTA, TGA, Mossbauer spectroscopy).</p> <p>Sixty-six ceramic samples from three well-stratified sites in the Inner city of Pliska were analyzed (fig. 1). The samples are from two chronological periods – the Metropolitan (8th – 9th c.) and the Post-metropolitan (10<sup>th</sup> – 11<sup>th</sup> c.) (fig. 2). The pottery is set in four groups according to its function: kitchenware (I), tableware (II), storageware (III), and pottery with specific use (IV). The pottery was thrown on slow tournette wheel, fast tournette wheel, and kick wheel.</p> <p>The household pottery is divided in three categories according to the type of pottery wheel used (I.1, I.2, I.3). The lowest temperatures are recorded for the pots thrown on slow tournette wheel (I.1.) (fig. 4), while the highest temperatures – for the pots thrown on kick wheel (I.3) (fig. 6). The pots thrown on fast tournette wheel (I.2.) hold an intermediate position (fig. 5).</p> <p>The tableware is set in five categories – gray ware (II.1), yellowish-white ware (II.2), amphora-like pitchers (II.3), small pitchers/jugs (II.4), and glazed ware (II.5). The gray ware (II.1) is very common in Pliska. The vessels were fired in reduction atmosphere. The highest firing temperatures (830 and 850 °С) were recorded for two samples dicovered in the “Secret underground passage” near the “Krum’s palace” and dated in the late 8th – early 9th c. (fig. 7). Lower temperatures (between 710 and 790 °С) were recorded for the pottery found in common dug-out dwellings from the late 10th – first half of the 11th c.</p> <p>The yellowish-white ware (II.2) is not very common for Pliska. Four samples were analyzed. They are from the table set discovered in the “Secret underground passage” near the “Krum’s palace” and dated in the late 8<sup>th</sup> – early 9<sup>th</sup> c. The vessels were fired at temperatures varying from 790 to 830 °С (fig. 8). The data are very close and comparable to the firing temperatures of some of the gray ware discovered at the same spot.</p> <p>Amphora-like pitchers (II.3) are the most common tableware in Pliska. Twelve samples from three different</p> <p>chronological contexts were analyzed (fig. 9). The vessels were usually fired between 790 and 870 °С.</p> <p>The small pitchers and jugs (II.4) hold an important share among the tableware in Pliska. The five samples analyzed are dated in the late 10<sup>th</sup> – first half of the 11<sup>th</sup> c. The vessels were fired at temperatures between 780 and 850 °С (fig. 10).</p> <p>Nine samples of glazed ware (II.5), dated in the late 10<sup>th</sup> – first half of the 11<sup>th</sup> c., were analyzed. According to the results, the firing temperatures of the vessels range from 770 to 910 °С (fig. 11) with data clustering in to two narrower temperature ranges: 770–830 °С and 890–910 °С.</p> <p>Seven samples from amphorae (III.1) were analyzed. One sample was found in a context dated in the late 8th – early 9th c., while the rest are from contexts dated in the late 10<sup>th</sup> – first quarter of the 11<sup>th</sup> c. According to the results, the vessels were fired at temperature conditions largely varying from 730 to 870&nbsp;°С (fig. 12).</p> <p>The sphero-conical vessels (IV.1) are very rare in Pliska. They were discovered in stratigraphic layers and contexts from the second third of the 11th c. Two samples were analyzed. They were fired at 730 °С (fig. 13).</p> <p>The thermomagnetic study of the household pottery in Pliska is attempt for a detailed research on the topic of pottery firing temperatures. The summarized data allow concluding as follows:</p> <ol> <li>The use of different types of potter’s wheel, hand or wheel powered, is one of the main factors determining the development of the pottery technologies during the Early Middle Ages. During the 8<sup>th</sup> – 9<sup>th</sup> c. the pottery thrown on slow tournette wheel was fired at relatively lower temperatures (between 730 and 770 °С), while the highest temperatures (between 810 and 870 °С) (fig. 14) were recorded for the pottery thrown on a kick wheel. The pottery thrown on fast tournette wheel has an intermediate position with temperatures ranging from 730 to 850 °С.</li> <li>There is a stable trend of increasing the firing temperatures of the vessels thrown on the three types of potter’s wheel during the Post-metropolitan period of Pliska (10<sup>th</sup> – 11<sup>th</sup> c.), but on a wider temperature range (fig. 15).</li> <li>During the 8<sup>th</sup> – 9<sup>th</sup> c. tableware was fired better that kitchenware (fig. 16), while during the 10<sup>th</sup> – 11<sup>th</sup> c. similar division between the functional groups of pottery was not registered (fig. 17).</li> <li>The average firing temperature of the pottery during the 8<sup>th</sup> – 9<sup>th</sup> c. is 792°С, while during the 10<sup>th</sup> – 11<sup>th</sup> c. reaches 814 °С (fig. 18) (Table 1).</li> <li>There is a gradation in temperature according to the type of potter’s wheel used (see Table 2).</li> <li>The highest temperature recorded for the 8<sup>th</sup> – 9<sup>th</sup> c. pottery is 870 °С, while for the 10<sup>th</sup> – 11<sup>th</sup> c. one is 950 °С (fig. 18).</li> <li>The data concerning the firing temperatures of the analyzed pottery categories are summarized (see Table 3). The differences in temperature most likely reflect the existing specific production requirements for each category.</li> </ol> <p>The represented results from the thermomagnetic study conform to the archaeological observations until now. During the 8<sup>th</sup> – 9<sup>th</sup> c. the pottery was thrown mainly on a slow tournette wheel and was fired at lower temperatures. Technological changes, introduced during the Post-metropolitan period of Pliska, result in diversification of the production of pottery. Stratigraphic data from the site “Palace center – east” in Pliska point out that during the 10<sup>th</sup> c. pots thrown on a fast tournette wheel displace those thrown on slow tournette wheel. During the late 10<sup>th</sup> and the first half of the 11<sup>th</sup> c. kick wheel is very commonly used. Using more developed types of potter’s wheel increase productivity, specialization of the activities is also intensified. There is a stable trend toward increasing the firing temperatures of pottery.</p> Valeri Grigorov, Maria Kostadinova-Avramova ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 14 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Термомагнитно изследване на средновековна битова керамика от Велики Преслав. Част I <p>The article presents the results of the thermomagnetic analysis of pottery from the excavations of the Royal Church in the Palace Center of Veliki Preslav. The selected samples were found in stratigraphic layers that cover a broad chronological range – first half of the 10th until the middle of the 13th century. Amongst them are fragments of cooking vessels, tableware and amphorae, made with a hand-driven or pedal-driven potter`s wheel. According to their different technology of manufacture and decoration, they are divided into 13 groups (Table 1).</p> <p>The analysis of the results for each of the tested groups leads to the following conclusions. During the 10th century, the pottery production in Veliki Preslav had a wide assortment that adhered to high technological standards. The firing temperatures of kitchenware are between 730 – 930 °C with an average of 818 ± 72 °C, while these of the glazed tableware are tendentiously higher varying from 890 to 950 °C with an average of 922 ± 28 °C (fig. 17). These high requirements to the quality of the ceramics production were directly related to the promotion of the town as a leading economic center of the country and the consequent rapid development of trade and crafts there.</p> <p>In the course of the 10<sup>th</sup> and 11<sup>th</sup> centuries, pottery made on a hand-driven potter`s wheel was baked at temperatures between 730 °C and 950 °C. At higher temperatures ranging from 790 °C up to over 1000 °C, were fired vessels made on a pedal-driven potter`s wheel (fig. 16).</p> <p>A radical change in the pottery production of Veliki Preslav occurred at the beginning of the 13th century. The temperatures of 750 – 790 °C were sufficient for firing of kitchenware in the 12<sup>th</sup> and 13<sup>th</sup> centuries (fig. 18). Tableware had an extremely rich repertoire, but its technical implementation was not always at a high level. Higher temperatures were obtainable in the kilns at firing table unglazed and glazed vessels – respectively 790 – 910 °C and 830 – 970 °C (fig. 18). Pottery with slip decoration was fired at an average temperature of 897 °C. The production of sgraffito ceramics, which started at the beginning of the 13<sup>th</sup> century, still lacked sustainable standards and vessels had been fired at various temperatures from 830 to 970 °C. Similar firing temperatures were identified for the amphorae from the considered periods (10<sup>th</sup> – 11<sup>th</sup> and 12<sup>th</sup> – 13<sup>th</sup> c.) – between 790 °C and 850 °C (fig. 17, 18).</p> <p>Some further observations can be made about the ceramic production of Pliska and Veliki Preslav at comparing the results from the thermomagnetic analysis of samples representing both metropolitan centers (fig. 19 – 22). There are no significant temperature differences in the kitchenware and amphorae (fig. 19, 22). However, a clear trend exists for the tableware – glazed and non-glazed. Definitely higher firing temperatures correspond to the Veliki Preslav vessels (fig. 20, 21). This is probably due to the rise of the city as a leading production center, which is catalyzed by the intense economic relations with Byzantium and access to the technical innovations of the epoch.</p> Maria Manolova-Vojkova, Petar Dimitrov, Maria Kostadinova-Avramova ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 14 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200